discussion questions

 Sanitation strike, Memphis, Tennessee, 1968

Paper Guidelines

The ULA Program has a standard procedure for papers. Here are the guidelines.

1. The final due date for all assignments for the summer term (July session) is December 1 and for the winter term (January session) is May 1. Students wishing to submit preliminary drafts of their papers should discuss this with individual faculty members. Papers received after the deadlines will receive an incomplete for the semester.

2. Send your paper directly to your instructor and not to UMass. Any questions about your assignment should also be made directly to the instructor. Our practice will be to have your grades and graded papers available for you at the next ULA session.

3. Please do not send your only copy of a paper (or supporting material) to an instructor. Make sure you keep a back-up copy and/or a paper copy of everything.

4. All papers should be double-spaced, with standard margins and font, and checked for errors in spelling and grammar.

5. Please use the Labor Center Style Sheet (see Style Sheet below), as a guide to citations and references. We do not use footnotes or endnotes, but citations in parentheses. Footnotes are only for points of clarification. For citations, please follow the ULA Style Sheet instead of Rampolla's Pocket Guide.

6. If you use someone else's ideas or information in any way, you must cite their work. You must also make it clear when you are directly quoting from another author or website, and include the most detailed information possible to identify your sources.

7. Your paper should be divided into sections, beginning with a short introduction (1 or 2 pages) that includes an overview of the paper and where you are going, and that states your thesis or argument. The next section (3 to 5 pages) should set up the issue or problem you are addressing. This typically involves reviewing the literature that others have written about the topic, as well as articulating your precise focus. (In a research paper this should include a description of your research methods.) The main body of the paper (8 to 10 pages) should provide both your evidence and your analysis. This section is best broken up into several parts, topically arranged. The final section of the paper (1 or 2 pages) should be a conclusion. Here you move beyond the narrow data or information and make some larger points. The conclusion should not be based solely on your own opinion but should flow out of the research you have done and the evidence you have analyzed in the body of the paper.

8. The paper should have a title page with your name and contact information. At the end of the paper you must have a reference list (see the Style Sheet for examples), followed by any relevant appendices.

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ULA Style Sheet

Paper format
*All text (including footnotes & references) must be doubled spaced and in a 12-point, standard font such as Times New Roman.
*Margins should be 1 or 1¼ inches on all four sides.
*Attach a separate title page including title of paper, name of author, name of the course and the professor, and the date the paper was submitted.
*Each page except the title page should be numbered consecutively.

Citations in text
For all class papers, the Labor Center uses the American Sociological Association Style (ASA). Works cited are noted within the text of the paper, and all references are listed at the end of the paper. We do not use footnotes or endnotes for citations.

You must cite authors not only when you are quoting from them but also when your writing is based on their work, their ideas, or their arguments. All citations are cited in the same way, even if they repeat; we do not use Ibid. or Idem. Don't worry about having too many citations - you will only get into trouble if you have too few. When in doubt, cite your sources.

Authors are cited in parentheses in the text, followed by the date of the article/book (Jones 1996). If you are quoting from a specific page, use a colon followed by the page number (Jones 1996: 36). If you are citing more than one text, alphabetize them with semicolons between them (Jones and Laughlin 1936; Sanders 1988; Smith and Smith 1938). If one text has three or more authors, use the first author's last name followed by "et al." (Garcia et al. 1954).

If you have multiple citations by one author, put the most recent first. When you have two citations by the same author(s) in the same year, use "a" and "b" after the dates (Jones 1996a) and (Jones 1996b).

Quotations in your paper must begin and end with quotation marks. The citation follows the end-quote mark and precedes the period at the end of the sentence, for example: "A union must have strong organizational support before conducting a mid-contract walkout" (Schwartz 1994: 31).

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Examples of in-text Citations:

If the author's name is already in the text, put the date in parentheses:
When Duncan (2007) studied...

If the author's name is not in the text, enclose the last name and year in parentheses:
When these relationships were studied (Gouldner 1963)...

For a quote or specific detail, the page number follows the colon:
As tabulated by Kuhn (1970: 71) the results show...

For joint authors, give both last names:
This research took a full decade (Martin and Bailey, 1988).

For three or more authors, use the first author and et al.:
(Carr et al. 1962)…

For institutional authorship, supply identification from the beginning of the complete citation:
(U.S. Bureau of the Census 1963: 117)...

If you used several sources for a particular idea or section of the paper, separate them with a semicolon and alphabetize:
(Burgess 1968; Marwell et al. 1971; Spencer 2001)...

For unpublished papers, cite the date. If no date is given, use n.d.:
According to Jones (n.d.)...

For data files, cite authorship and date:
(Institute for Survey Research 1976).

For internet sources, cite the name of the page or the document, and date it was retrieved:
(Manifesto for Union Democracy 2007).

For interviews, personal communication, or email:
(Weinbaum 2007).

If you have more than one document, interview, or email from the same year, use letters after the date to indicate which one you are citing:
(Berry 2007a; Berry 2007f)…

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Reference list

At the conclusion of your paper, you must have a section entitled "References" that includes all of the sources that you have cited in your paper. Your reference list should provide complete information about all of your sources, so that someone else could retrieve the same information you used in the paper. When in doubt, put more information rather than less.
*References should be alphabetized by the authors' last names.
*Invert the author's name (last name first). If there are two or more authors, only invert the first author's name.
*If one author has multiple entries, arrange them by year of publication, and replace the author's name with dashes for all following entries.
*If you list works by the same author in the same year, add letters to the date (e.g., 2005a, 2005b, 2005c).
*If no date is available, put "n.d." in place of the date.
*Use italics for books and periodical titles (or underline if italics are not available).
*Works published by an organization should be listed under the name of the organization. Interviews should be listed under the name of the person interviewed. Websites must contain the full URL, as well as the date retrieved.
*References should be single-spaced with two spaces between entries.
*Use hanging indentation: the first line of each entry should be flush with the margin, with subsequent lines of that entry indented.

The basic form for a book reference is:
1. Author's last name, followed by a comma, author's first name and middle initial, period.
2. Year of publication followed by a period.
3. Title of book (italicized) followed by a period. Follow with edition number if necessary.
4. City of publication (include state abbreviation only if it is not a well-known city) followed by a colon and name of publisher, ending with a period.

The basic form for a journal/magazine/newspaper article reference is:
1. Author's last name, followed by a comma, author's first name and middle initial, period.
2. Year of publication followed by a period.
3. Title of article in "quotations," followed by a period inside the closing quotation mark.
4. Title of journal/newspaper/magazine in italics, with no period following.
4a. For a journal, add the volume number followed by the issue number in parentheses, followed by a colon, page number, and period.
4b. For a magazine or newspaper, follow the title of the publication with a comma, then pp., then the page number of the article, followed by a period.

5. For articles found online, add the date of retrieval and the URL of the site at which you located the article in parentheses, followed by a period. For example: Retrieved May 11, 2011 (

Examples of formatting for other types of references follow.

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Examples of formatted references:

Books - One Author
Prus, Robert C. 1996. Symbolic Interaction and Ethnographic Research: Intersubjectivity and the Study of Human Lived Experience. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.

Multiple books by a cited author (e.g. Robert C. Prus)
Prus, Robert C. 1996. Symbolic Interaction and Ethnographic Research: Intersubjectivity and the Study of Human Lived Experience. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.

------. 1997. Subcultural Mosaics and Intersubjective Realities: an Ethnographic Research Agenda for Pragmatizing the Social Sciences. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.

Books with two authors
Renzetti, Claire M. and Daniel J. Curran. 1998. Living Sociology. Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon.

Books - Edited volumes
Turner, Stephen P., ed. 1996. Social Theory and Sociology: The Classics and Beyond. Cambridge, MA: Blackwell.

Books - Edition other than first
Booth, Barbara, ed. 1999. Thesaurus of Sociological Indexing Terms. 5th ed. Bethesda, MD: Cambridge Scientific Abstracts.

Books with no author
The Chicago Manual of Style. 2003. 15th ed. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

Book chapters
Neuman, W. Lawrence. 1994. "Qualitative Research Design." Pp. 316-29 in Social Research Methods: Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches. 2nd ed. Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon.

Articles from Collected Works
Sampson, Robert J. 1992. "Family Management and Child Development: Insights from Social Disorganization Theory." Pp. 63-93 in Advances in Criminology Theory, vol. 3, Facts, Frameworks, and Forecasts, edited by J. McCord. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction.

Articles from Journals - One Author
Mehdizadeh, Shahla A. 2002. "Health and Long-Term Care Use Trajectories of Older Disabled Women." Gerontologist 42:304-13.

Articles from Journals - Two Authors
Schoenberg, Nancy E. and Hege Ravdal. 2000. "Using Vignettes in Awareness and Attitudinal Research." International Journal of Social Research Methodology 3(1):63-74.

(Use the issue number or exact date for journals that do not number pages consecutively within a volume.)

Articles from Journals - Multiple Authors

Lanz, Margherita, Raffaella Iafrate, Rosa Rosnati, and Eugenia Scabini. 1999. "Parent-Child Communication and Adolescent Self-Esteem in Separated, Intercountry Adoptive and Intact Non-Adoptive Families." Journal of Adolescence 22:785-94.

Articles from Magazines and Newspapers
Gibbs, Nancy. 1999. "Noon in the Garden of Good and Evil: The Tragedy at Columbine Began As a Crime Story But Is Becoming a Parable." Time, May 17, 153:54.

Snyder, Donna. 1999. "Judge Orders Teen's Hearing in Murder Case to Be Closed." The Buffalo News, May18, 1B.

Articles from Commercial Electronic Databases
Graham, Lorie M. 1998. "The Past Never Vanishes: A Contextual Critique of the Existing Indian Family Doctrine" American Indian Law Review, 23:1 (32,854 words). Retrieved April 26, 2005 (

Alaggia, Ramona. 2002. "Balancing Acts: Reconceptualizing Support in Maternal Response to Intra-Familial Child Sexual Abuse." Clinical Social Work Journal. 30:41 (16 pages). Retrieved April 26, 2005 (

Articles from Electronic Journals
Jones, Bobby L., Daniel S. Nagin, and Kathryn Roeder. 2001. "A SAS Procedure Based on Mixture Models for Estimating Developmental Trajectories." Sociological Methods and Research, 29:374-93. Retrieved April 26, 2005 (

Electronic Books
Torres, Carlos Alberto and Theodore R. Mitchell, eds. 1998. Sociology of Education: Emerging Perspectives. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press. Retrieved April 26, 2005 (

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