Home
Conference
Class Papers
Links

The Sixties, HIST-1026-F-1
Syllabus - Spring 2019
Internal Colonies


 
 Detail of mural by René Mederos.
 

Priscilla Murolo
North 10, 914-395-2283
pmurolo@sarahlawrence.edu

Class meets in Sheffield 02, Mon/Thurs 11:05-12:30-1:30
(End times vary; see the class schedule for particulars.)

CLICK HERE FOR SCHEDULE.

back to top 

 

CLASS WORK


Reading:
All texts are on reserve at the library or accessible digitally, either online or as PDFs. Those listed below are also available at the campus bookstore.

For discussion in class:

Tariq Ali, Street Fighting Years: An Autobiography of the Sixties

Stokely Carmichael with Eukwueme Thelwell, Ready for Revolution: The Life and Struggles of Stokely Carmichael (Kwame Ture)

Mary Crow Dog, Lakota Woman

Rachel DuPlessis and Ann Snitow, eds., The Feminist Memoir Project

Ignacio Garcia, Chicanismo: The Forging of a Militant Ethos among Mexican Americans

O'Brien, If I Die in a Combat Zone: Box Me Up and Ship Me Home

Craig Scharlin and Lilia Villanueva, Philip Vera Cruz: A Personal History of Filipino Immigrants and the Farmworkers Movement

Bryan Shih and Yohuru Williams, The Black Panthers: Portraits from an Unfinished Revolution

Amy Sonnie and James Tracy, Hillbilly Nationalists, Urban Race Rebels, and Black Power: Community Organizing in Radical Times

Jeanne Theoharis, The Rebellious Life of Mrs. Rosa Parks

Malcolm X, The Autobiography of Malcolm X: As Told to Alex Haley


Reference:
Mary Lynn Rampolla, A Pocket Guide to Writing in History (9th edition)

back to top 

 

Reading notes
Students must hand in photocopies of their notes on all reading for the seminar. Notes are due when we discuss the text(s) in class or conference. They'll be returned in batches on March 4 and May 16. DO NOT HAND IN YOUR ONLY COPY OF ANY NOTES.

 

Seminar meetings:
To prepare for our meetings, consider the discussion questions in the course schedule below.

 

Class presentations:
Over the course of the term, every student will present a short paper (3-4 pages; 900-1200 words) on a book related to seminar reading. Focus your paper on the most important things the books adds to our understanding of the U.S. sixties based on our common readings. See the class schedule for assignments and due dates. These papers will be posted on the Class Papers page.

 

Paper on Ready for Revolution:
A five-page paper (about 1500 words) in response to Kwame Ture's autobiography is due on Monday, April 1. Focus the paper on this question: Like Malcolm X (b. 1925), Rosa Parks (b. 1913), and Yuri Kochiyama (b. 1921), Kwame Ture (b. 1941) devoted himself to the Black Freedom Movement; but he belonged to a younger generation of activists. In what ways did that distinguish-or not distinguish-his experience and politics from theirs?

Assessments of conference work in progress:
Our readings for February 7 and 11 are the conference papers' first drafts. Authors will email copies to the whole class, and hard copies will be in the library, in the "Murolo" box on the open shelves next to the reserve collection. DO NOT REMOVE THE PAPERS FROM THE LIBRARY; PHOTOCOPY THOSE YOU WISH TO READ AT HOME. We'll discuss each draft for about 20 minutes, starting with the author's evaluation. Students must write a short assessment of every classmate's draft. In each case, identify the work's main strengths, main weaknesses, and best possibilities for further development. Assessments are due when the work is discussed in class. Please hand in two copies, one for the author and the other for PM.

back to top 

CONFERENCE WORK

Assignments:
The task this term is to expand, revise and polish projects begun in the fall. For guidelines, see the appendix to this syllabus. The due dates are:
Monday, February 4 - first draft (HAND IN TWO PAPER COPIES; EMAIL A COPY TO THE WHOLE SEMINAR)
Monday, March 4 - updated prospectus and bibliography (HAND IN A PAPER COPY AND EMAIL A COPY TO PM & YOUR CONFERENCE GROUP)
Monday, April 22 - final draft (TWO PAPER COPIES; EMAIL A COPY TO THE WHOLE SEMINAR)

Conferences will include both individual and small-group meetings, and we will no longer meet on a weekly basis. See below for the general schedule and line-ups of the various groups.

The groups are:
Culture Vultures: Jo Barber, Wyatt Button, Jocelyn Ksenak, Jonah Morgulas,
Sex, Gender, Family: Amaya Demick, Tommy Hernandez, Peyton Kullander
The Third World Movement: Pilar Beddall, Corinne Davenport, Lillian Silver
American Political Culture: Ry Cullen, Rebecca Lee, Jamie Taylor

back to top 

 

 

General schedule:
Weeks starting Monday, January 21 - short individual meetings for registration and review of the fall term (Tu & Wed only)
January 28 - individual meetings
February 4 - no meetings
February 11 - individual meetings
February 18 - no meetings
February 25 - individual meetings
March 4 - no meetings
March 11 - group meetings to discuss plans for final drafts
March 18 and 25 - Spring Break
April 1 - individual meetings
April 8 - no meetings
April 15 - individual meetings
April 22 - no meetings
April 29 - individual meetings to discuss final drafts
May 6 - no meetings
May 13 - group meetings to discuss final drafts
PLEASE NOTE THAT THIS SCHEDULE DOES NOT ADHERE TO THE A-WEEK/B-WEEK FORMAT.

back to top 

 

C L A S S    S C H E D U L E 
THE ASTERISK (*) DENOTES ITEMS DISTRIBUTED AS PDFS. THE POUND (#) DENOTES ITEMS AVAILABLE ONLINE VIA LINKS TO THE SCHEDULE BELOW

1/24
1/28
1/31
2/4
2/7
2/11
2/14
2/18
2/21
2/25
2/28
3/4
3/7
3/11
3/14
3/16-31
4/1
4/4
4/8
4/11
4/15
4/18
4/22
4/25
4/29
5/2
5/6
5/9
5/13
5/16

back to top 


Thurs 1/24
Autobiography as History


Reading:
Ali, Street Fighting Years

Although he lived elsewhere, the United States looms very large in Ali's memoir of the sixties. How do you account for that?

back to schedule 
back to top  

 

 

Mon 1/28
Good Sixties/Bad Sixties

Reading:
*Van Gosse, "Consensus and Contradiction in Textbook Treatments of the Sixties," Journal of American History 82:2 (September 1995): 658-669
*"The American Sixties: A Brief History," in David Farber and Beth Bailey, The Columbia Guide to America in the 1960s, 1-76

Think about the vision of the sixties that you received in high school. In what ways did it adhere to or depart from the consensus that Van Gosse describes and the overview in The Columbia Guide?

CLASS WILL BEGIN WITH A 30-MINUTE SESSION WITH MARA GROSS, DIRECTOR OF THE OFFICE OF COMMUNITY PARTNERSHIPS AND SERVICE LEARNING.

back to schedule 
back to top  

 

 

Thurs 1/31
"Don't trust anyone over 30."

Film: High School (1968)

CLASS ENDS AT 1:00.

back to schedule 
back to top

 


Mon 2/4
The Movement in Music

In class we'll listen to Marvin Gaye's album What's Going On (1971) and to selections from Gil Scott Heron's The Revolution Will Not Be Televised (1974).

CONFERENCE PAPERS' FIRST DRAFTS ARE DUE IN CLASS. HAND IN TWO HARD COPIES, AND EMAIL THE PAPER TO THE WHOLE SEMINAR (INCLUDING PM).

CLASS ENDS AT 1:30.

back to schedule 
back to top
  

 

 

Thurs 2/7
Discussion of conference papers' first drafts

Reading:
papers by Jo Barber, Wyatt Button, Jocelyn Ksenak, Jonah Morgulas, Amaya Demick, Tommy Hernandez, and Peyton Kullander

HAND IN TWO COPIES OF YOUR ASSESSMENTS OF CLASSMATES' DRAFTS.

CLASS MEETS UNTIL 1:30.

back to schedule 
back to top

 

 

Mon 2/11
Discussion of conference papers' first drafts

Reading:
papers by Pilar Beddall, Corinne Davenport, Lillian Silver, Ry Cullen, Rebecca Lee, Jamie Taylor

HAND IN TWO COPIES OF YOUR ASSESSMENTS OF CLASSMATES' DRAFTS.

CLASS ENDS AT 1:30.

back to schedule 
back to top

 

 

Thurs 2/14
"If I honestly and fully tell my life's account..."

Reading:
Malcolm X, The Autobiography of Malcolm X

The chapter on 1965--the year Malcolm X was assassinated--closes with his thoughts as to how he will be remembered. Does his story justify these predictions? Do they accurately reflect what you knew (or thought you knew) about him before reading this book?

back to schedule 
back to top

 

 

Mon 2/18
"Civil Disturbance"

Reading:
*Heather Ann Thompson, "Urban Uprisings: Riots or Rebellions?," in The Columbia Guide to America in the 1960s, 109-117

What is the most important difference between a riot and a rebellion, and what does it matter which term why apply to urban uprisings of the sixties?

Film: Revolution '67 (2007)

CLASS ENDS AT 1:30.

back to schedule 
back to top

 

 

Thurs 2/21
The Most Famous Woman We Scarcely Know

Reading:
Theoharis, The Rebellious Life of Mrs. Rosa Parks

Rosa Parks is one of the most widely remembered participants in the Black Freedom Movement, and she is just as commonly misremembered. What are the chief differences between the mythical Rosa Parks and the real-life activist? How do you explain the mythology's tenacious hold on public memory?

back to schedule 
back to top

 

 

Mon 2/25
Revolutionary Multiculturalism

Film: Yuri Kochiyama: A Passion for Justice (1994)

CLASS ENDS AT 1:00.

back to schedule 
back to top

 

 

Thurs 2/28
Undoing Stereotypes
Reading:
*Beth Tompkins Bates, "The Upheaval of Jim Crow: African Americans and the Struggle for Civil Rights in the 1960s," in The Columbia Guide to America in the 1960s, 79-90

Following the presentations, we'll discuss stereotypes of the Black Freedom Movement and the realities they obscure.

Presentations:
Rebecca Lee on Melba Pattillo Beals, Warriors Don't Cry: A Searing Memoir of the Battle to Integrate Little Rock's Central High
Tommy Hernandez on Clayborne Carson, ed., The Autobiography of Martin Luther King, Jr.
Corinne Davenport on Chana Kai Lee, For Freedom's Sake: The Life of Fannie Lou Hamer
Wyatt Button on George Jackson, Soledad Brother: The Prison Letters of George Jackson

CLASS ENDS AT 1:00.

back to schedule 
back to top

 

 

Mon 3/4
Repression and Forgetfulness

Film: A Nation of Law? (1990)

HAND IN A HARD COPY OF THE UPDATED PROSPECTUS AND BIBLIOGRAPHY FOR THE CONFERENCE PROJECT. EMAIL A DIGITAL COPY TO PM AND TO MEMBERS OF YOUR CONFERENCE GROUP.

CLASS ENDS AT 1:00.

back to schedule 
back to top


 

Thurs 3/7
Vietnam Vets

Reading:
O'Brien, If I Die in a Combat Zone
Explore: Sir! No, Sir! GI Movement Archives

Most of the American GIs who went to Vietnam had volunteered for military service. Why did so many of them turn against the war?

Film: Sir! No, Sir! (2005)

CLASS ENDS AT 1:30

back to schedule 
back to top

 

 

Mon 3/11
In the Belly of the Beast

Reading (Click on highlighted titles for links to reading; see also PDFs distributed to the class.)
*Max Elbaum, "What Legacy from the Radical Internationalism of 1968?," Radical History Review, Issue 82 (Winter 2002): 37-64
*Robert Blauner, "Colonized and Immigrant Minorities," in Ronald Takaki, ed., From Different Shores: Perspectives on Race and Ethnicity in America
#Black Panther Party, Platform and Program (October 1966)
#Martin Luther King, Jr., "Beyond Vietnam: A Time to Break Silence" (April 4, 1967)
#Julian Bond, Vietnam (1967)
#American Indian Movement, Three Point Program (circa 1975; scroll down the page)
#Chicano National Liberation Youth Conference, El Plan Espiritual de Aztlán (March 1969)

*Young Lords Party, 13-Point Program and Platform (October 1969; revised November 1970)
#I Wor Kuen, Twelve Point Platform and Program (1969)
#Frances Beal, "Black Women's Manifesto" (1969)
#Roxanne Dunbar, Female Liberation as the Basis for Social Revolution (1969)
*Red Butterfly, Gay Liberation (1970): "The Nature of Gay Oppression," "A History of the Gay Liberation Movement," "The Essence of Liberation," "Gay Liberation and the Movement"
*Radicalesbians, San Francisco, Lesbianism is Revolution (1971): "To My Sisters," "Lesbianism as a Political Statement," "The Woman Identified Woman"
*Enriqueta Longeaux y Vásquez, "The Woman of La Raza" (1972), in Alma Garcia, ed., Chicana Feminist Thought: The Basic Historical Writings

Think about these readings in comparison to our texts in the fall. How did sixties movements in the United States resemble and differ from the Third World Movement?

back to schedule 
back to top

 

 

Thurs 3/14
El Nuevo Despertar

Reading:
*in Andrés Torres and José Velázquez, eds., The Puerto Rican Movement: Voices from the Diaspora: Pablo Guzman, "La Vida Pura: A Lord of the Barrio," and Iris Morales, "¡PALANTE, SIEMPRE PALANTE! The Young Lords"
Explore: The Latino/a Education Network Service website

As the memoirs by Guzman and Morales attest, the turn toward Marxism-Leninism subjected radical activists to stifling discipline and hierarchical leadership. Still, like group after group, the Young Lords Party made the turn with great enthusiasm. What were the attractions of Marxist-Leninist styles of organization?

Film: ¡PALANTE, SIEMPRE PALANTE! The Young Lords (1996)

CLASS ENDS AT 1:00.

back to schedule 
back to top

 

 

Sat 3/16-Sun 3/31
Spring Break

 

 

Mon 4/1
Generations

Reading:
Carmichael, Ready for Revolution

Like Malcolm X (b. 1925), Rosa Parks (b. 1913), and Yuri Kochiyama (b. 1921), Kwame Ture (b. 1941) devoted himself to the Black Freedom Movement; but he belonged to a younger generation of activists. In what ways did that distinguish-or not distinguish-his experience and politics from theirs?

HAND IN A FIVE-PAGE (1500-WORD) PAPER IN RESPONSE TO THIS QUESTION. BE READY TO SHARE SOME OF YOUR PAPER IN CLASS.


back to schedule 
back to top  

 

 

Thurs 4/4
Aztlán

Reading:
Garcia, Chicanismo

Ignacio García describes Chicano nationalism as, among other things, an interpretation of history. What does he mean by that? Can the same be said of other sixties movements we've studied?

back to schedule 
back to top  

 

 

Mon 4/8
The Rock

Film: Alcatraz is Not an Island (2001)

CLASS ENDS AT 1:00.

back to schedule 
back to top  

 

 

Thurs 4/11
AIM

Reading:
Crow Dog, Lakota Woman

Following the presentations, we'll discuss an issue that Mary Crow Dog raises at the beginning of chapter 8, where she writes: "I do not consider myself a radical or revolutionary. It is white people who put such labels on us. All we ever wanted was to be left alone, to live our lives as we see fit? To govern ourselves in reality and not just on paper." (111) Why has white society, most notably the U.S. government, regarded such desires on the part of Native Americans as dangerously revolutionary?

Presentations:
Pilar Beddall on Johanna Brand and Warren Allmand, The Life and Death of Anna Mae Aquash
Amaya Demick on Leonard Peltier, Prison Writings: My Life Is My Sun Dance

CLASS ENDS AT 1:00.

back to schedule 
back to top  

 

 

Mon 4/15
Working-Class Sixties

Reading:
*Priscilla Murolo and A.B. Chitty, From the Folks Who Brought You the Weekend: An Illustrated History of Labor in the United States (rev ed., 2018), Chapters 9 and 10: "Hot War, Cold War" and "The Sixties"

Chapter 10 points to many examples of sixties movements in workplaces and working-class communities. The differences among them are obvious. Less so the commonalities; what are they?


back to schedule 
back to top

 

 

Thurs 4/18
"Organize Your Own"

Reading:
Sonnie and Tracy, Hillbilly Nationalists

As Sonnie and Tracy observe in their introduction, histories of the American sixties routinely ignore poor and working-class whites who identified with the New Left. Why is that, and how does it affect our general understanding of sixties movements?

back to schedule 
back to top  

 

 

Mon 4/22
The Finish Line!

Be ready for an open discussion of the most important things you learned about the rewards, frustrations, and pitfalls of independent research.

HAND IN TWO HARD COPIES OF THE CONFERENCE PAPER'S FINAL DRAFT, AND EMAIL IT TO THE WHOLE SEMINAR, INCLUDING PM.

back to schedule 
back to top  

 

 

Thurs 4/25
Women's Liberation I

Reading:
*Joon Pyo Lee, "The Third World Women's Alliance, 1970-1980: Women of Color Organizing in a Revolutionary Era" M.A. Thesis, Sarah Lawrence College, 2007

Following the film, we'll discuss this question: How would veterans of the Third World Women's Alliance have reviewed this movie?

Film: Born in Flames (1983)

CLASS ENDS AT 1:30.

back to schedule 
back to top  

 

 

Mon 4/29
Women's Liberation II

Reading:
DuPlessis and Snitow, eds., The Feminist Memoir Project: editors' introduction; memoirs of Barbara Emerson (54-70), Elizabeth Martínez (115-123), Meridith Tax (311-323), Joan Nestle (338-349), Barbara Omolade (377-408), and Shirley Geok-lin Lim ( 450-466); the responses, 467-495; the chronology, 496-512

Following the presentations, we'll discuss this question: Compare the feminism(s) you have encountered to the women's liberation movement described in our common readings and in the books presented by Jamie and Peyton. What are the principal differences and similarities, and how do you account for them?

Presentations:
Jamie Taylor on Breanne Fahs, Valerie Solanas: The Defiant Life of the Woman Who Wrote SCUM (and Shot Andy Warhol)
Peyton Kullander on Roxanne Dunbar Ortiz, Outlaw Woman: A Memoir of the War Years, 1960-1975

CLASS ENDS AT 1:00.

back to schedule 
back to top 

 

 

Thurs 5/2
Birth of a Queer Nation

Reading:
*Terence Kissack, "Freaking Fag Revolutionaries: New York's Gay Liberation Front, 1969-1971," Radical History Review, no. 62 (Spring 1995): 105-134
*Diwas Kc, "Of Consciousness and Criticism: Identity in the Intersections of the Gay Liberation Front and Young Lords Party," M.A. Thesis, Sarah Lawrence College, 2005

Following the presentations, we'll discuss this question: Based on the case studies discussed in our common readings and the individual experiences and outlooks recounted in the presentations, what generalizations can we make about the gay and lesbian liberation movement's relationship to revolutionary nationalism?

Presentations:
Lillian Silver on Karla Jay, Tales of the Lavender Menace: A Memoir of Liberation
Jo Barber on Martin Duberman, Midlife Queer: Autobiography of a Decade, 1971-1981
Jocelyn Ksenak on Amber Hollibaugh, My Dangerous Desires: A Queer Girl Dreaming Her Way Home

CLASS ENDS AT 1:30.

back to schedule 
back to top  

 


Mon 5/6
Nationalism's Boundaries

Reading:
Scharlin and Villanueva, Philip Vera Cruz
review García, Chicanismo, first section of chapter 4, 86-92

Ignacio García presents Chicano nationalism as the vital engine of the United Farm Workers. In Philip Vera Cruz's memoir, on the other hand, Chicano nationalism emerges as a force that not only galvanized the union but also divided its members and sapped the organization's momentum. Do you think that divisiveness was inevitable, or can you imagine a nationalist agenda capable of unifying Chicano and Filipino farmworkers?

back to schedule 
back to top

 

 

Thurs 5/9
Backlash

Reading:
*Edward Berkowitz, "Losing Ground?: The Great Society in Historical Perspective," in The Columbia Guide to America in the 1960s, 98-108
*Jeff Roche, "Political Conservatism in the Sixties: Silent Majority or White Backlash?," in The Columbia Guide, 157-166

For discussion following the presentations: These essays explore competing explanations for the conservative backlash that gathered strength in the sixties and eventually swept the right into power. Which explanation(s) do you find the most persuasive?

Presentations:
Ry Cullen on Rick Perlstein, Before the Storm: Barry Goldwater and the Unmaking of the American Consensus
Jonah Morgulas on Dan T. Carter, The Politics of Rage: George Wallace, the Origins of the New Conservatism, and the Transformation of American Politics


back to schedule 
back to top

 

 

Mon 5/13
A Luta Continua

Reading:
Shih and Williams, eds., The Black Panthers

Of all the revolutionary groups that operated in the United States in the sixties, the Black Panther Party is the most widely remembered--and the most commonly misremembered. What are its most important legacies for your generation?

back to schedule 
back to top 

 

 

Thurs 5/16
Celebration

back to schedule 
back to top