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The Sixties, Fall 2019:
The Third World Movement
 
 Detail of mural by René Mederos.

HIST 3706 R 1
Mon/Thurs 11:05-12:30*
Sheffield 02

*To make time for films, music, or student presentations, seminar meetings will often end at 1:00 or 1:30. See the class schedule for details.

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Class Work
   
Reading
All of the required reading is on reserve at the library or available online. Texts listed below are also on sale at the campus bookstore and easily purchased online. Or, for a refreshing alternative, order them at our local independent bookstore: Womrath's on Pondfield Road in downtown Bronxville.

For discussion in class:
Dang Thuy Tram, Last Night I Dreamed of Peace: The Diary of Dang Thuy Tram

Shirin Ebadi, Iran Awakening: One Woman's Journey to Reclaim her Life and Country

Frantz Fanon, A Dying Colonialism

Che Guevara, Congo Diary: The Story of Che Guevara's "Lost" Year in Africa

Dongping Han, The Unknown Cultural Revolution: Life and Change in a Chinese Village

George Katsiaficas, The Global Imagination of 1968: Revolution and Counterrevolution

Kadour Naïmi, Freedom in Solidarity: My Experiences in the May 1968 Uprising

John Perkins, New Confessions of an Economic Hit Man

Vijay Prashad, The Darker Nations: A People's History of the Third World

Yasmin Saikia, Women, War and the Making of Bangladesh: Remembering 1971

Manju Soni, When Lions Roared: How Brave Young People Defied Apartheid


Reference:

Mary Lynn Rampolla, A Pocket Guide to Writing in History (9th edition, 2017)

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Seminar meetings
In preparation for our meetings, review the discussion questions embedded in the course schedule below. They will provide the starting points for our deliberations.


Class paper and presentation
A short paper is due on on Thursday, October 17. Students will present their papers to the class. Click here for guidelines.


Reading notes
Students must hand in their notes on all reading for seminar meetings. Notes are due when we discuss the text(s) in class. They'll be returned in batches on October 17 and December 19. DO NOT HAND IN YOUR ONLY COPY OF ANY NOTES.

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Conference Work

Students may investigate any aspect of the "sixties" (circa 1945-1979) in the United States or elsewhere. Writing based on this investigation may take various forms, including research papers, historiographical essays, annotated collections of primary documents, or historical fiction. Click here for guidelines. 

Here are the due dates for various phases of conference work:
Monday, November 4 - prospectus and bibliography for the conference paper
Thursday, December 19 - detailed outline of the paper
Monday, February 3 - first draft of the paper

During the winter break, a response to the outline will arrive via gm.slc email; take it into account as you compose the first draft. When we reconvene after the winter break, the whole seminar will read each student's first draft and discuss it in class. Conference papers will be expanded, revised, and polished in the spring.
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Reasonable Accommodations
If a disability may interfere with your capacity to participate in this course, you may be entitled to reasonable accommodations. Contact Polly Waldman, Associate Dean of Studies and Disabilities Services located in Westlands 116, telephone 914-395-2235 and email pwaldman@sarahlawrence.edu. Under the Americans with Disabilities Act and Section 504 of the Vocational Rehabilitation Act of 1973, all students, with or without disabilities, are entitled to equal access to the programs and activities of Sarah Lawrence College and the College will provide reasonable accommodations as appropriate and necessary.
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C L A S S    S C H E D U L E  

9/9
9/12
9/16
9/19
9/23
9/26
9/30
10/3
10/7
10/10
10/14
10/17
10/21
10/24
10/28
10/31
11/4
11/7
11/11
11/14
11/18
11/21
11/25
11/28
12/2
12/5
12/9
12/12
12/16
12/19
Break
1/23

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A NOTE ABOUT READING ASSIGNMENTS: IN THE SCHEDULE BELOW, THE ASTERISK (*) DENOTES ITEMS THAT WILL BE DISTRIBUTED AS PDFS. THE POUND (#) DENOTES ITEMS AVAILABLE ONLINE VIA LINKS ON THIS WEB PAGE.

 

 

Mon 9/9
Introduction to the Course

No reading assignment.

In class: review of the syllabus; discussion of assignments and expectations; schedule conferences; draw the sixties (your vision of the era based on images you've inherited from history courses and textbooks, from popular culture, and from your elders); presentation of drawings.

CLASS ENDS AT 1:00.

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Thurs 9/12
Reading History

Reading: Rampolla, Pocket Guide, chapters 1-2 and sections a and b of chapter 3 (pp. 1-33)
Come to class with the Pocket Guide and a copy of Vijay Prashad's The Darker Nations.

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Mon 9/16
The Movement's Soil

Reading: *Nicole Pacino, Eugenics Archive entry on Bolivia (PDF)

Film: Blood of the Condor (1969)

What does this movie suggest about social relationships within Bolivia as well as Bolivians' relationship to more powerful nations?

CLASS ENDS AT 1:30.

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Thurs 9/19
The Movement Flowers

Reading: Prashad, The Darker Nations, introduction and part 1 (pp. xv-115)

As Vijay Prashad observes, the Third World was not a place but a project. What were that project's origins, and what were the main features of its evolution from the Brussels conference of 1927 to the Havana conference of 1966?

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Mon 9/23
Documents

Reading:
(Click here for links to all of documents marked with a pound.)
- #Ho Chi Minh, Proclamation of Independence of the Democratic Republic of Viet Nam, September 2, 1945
- #President Sukarno of Indonesia, Speech at the Opening of the Bandung Conference, April 18, 1955
- #National Liberation Front for South Vietnam, Program, 1960
- #Julius Nyerere, Ujamaa - The Basis of African Socialism, April 1962
- #Ernesto Che Guevara, "Message to the Tricontinental," 1967
- *Rius, The Tupamaros, adapted from Los Agachados, 1968 (PDF)
- *Shridath S. Ramphal, "Not by Unity Alone: The Case for Third World Organisation," Third World Quarterly, vol. 1, no. 3 (July 1979): 43-52 (PDF)

How do these documents fit into, enlarge, and/or contradict the picture of the Third World movement presented by Vijay Prashad? In class, teams of students will present answers to this question in regard to specific documents.

CLASS ENDS AT 1:00.

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Thurs 9/26
Third Cinema

Reading: #Octavio Getino and Fernando Solanas, "Towards a Third Cinema" (excerpt), Tricontinental
no. 14, October 1969 (Click here for a link to the reading.)

Film: La hora de los hornos/Hour of the Furnaces (1968), part one

In this documentary, Getino and Solanas attempt to practice what their essay preaches with regard to filmmaking as revolutionary activism. What's your assessment of the result?

CLASS ENDS AT 1:30.

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Mon 9/30
Inspiration

Reading: Dang, Last Night I Dreamed of Peace

How do you explain Dang Thuy Tram's perseverance in the face of the hardships she endured and the suffering she witnessed?

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Thurs 10/3
Urban Guerrillas

Film: The Battle of Algiers (1966)

CLASS ENDS AT 1:30.

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Mon10/7
In the Countryside

Reading: Fanon, A Dying Colonialism

This book explores the cultural side of Algerians' revolution against French colonialism. How did culture matter to the balance of power in that conflict? (To grasp this reading, you must approach it with an open mind, avoiding the erroneous assumption that the book relates a predictable story of Algerians' loyalty to an indigenous culture that the French sought to wipe out. What Fanon has to tell us is vastly more complicated than that.)

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Thurs 10/10
Challenging Settler Colonialism

Reading:
- *excerpts from The Black Consciousness Reader: ix-21, 310-318 (background information and documents; PDF)
- Soni, When Lions Roared

As Manju Soni notes, Steve Biko's slogan "Black man, you are on your own" became a rallying cry for South Africa's freedom movement. What did this statement mean, and why was it so galvanizing?

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Mon 10/14
Research Tools

No reading assignment.

CLASS MEETS IN THE LIBRARY FOR BIBLIOGRAPHIC INSTRUCTION.

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Thurs 10/17
The Politics of Eros

Reading: Katsiaficas, The Global Imagination of 1968, foreword, preface, and pp. 1-210

Find a primary source that exemplifies the "eros effect," circa 1968-1970, in a place beyond the United States. Write a two-page essay that explains how this source articulates the politics of eros. Come to class with your essay and your primary source (or a photo of it), and be ready to read the essay to the seminar. Click here for guidelines.

CLASS ENDS AT 1:30.

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Mon 10/21
October Break - NO CLASS MEETING

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Thurs 10/24
Complications

Reading: Prashad, The Darker Nations, part 2 (pp. 119-203)

Here, Vijay Prashad considers the Third World Movement's internal flaws. Which of these flaws strike you as the most significant?

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Mon 10/28
Imperfections of Internationalism: Che in the Congo

Reading: Guevara, Congo Diary

Che Guevara opens the book with a warning: "This is the story of a failure" (15). What does he mean by that, and was the failure he describes inevitable?

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Thurs 10/31
Complicating the Complications: Congo and Beyond

Film: Cuba: An African Odyssey (2007)

What is this movie's impact on the conclusions you drew from reading Congo Diary?

CLASS ENDS AT 1:30.

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Mon 11/4
The Limits of National Unity

Film: De Cierta Manera/One Way orAnother (1974)
In this movie, Sara Gómez-the only Afro-Cuban woman at the government-funded Instituto Cubano del Arte e Industria Cinematográficos-explores the racial and gender dynamics of everyday life in revolutionary Cuba. What is the film's message on that subject?

CLASS ENDS AT 1:30.

HAND IN A HARD COPY OF THE PROSPECTUS/BIBLIOGRAPHY FOR THE CONFERENCE PROJECT. CLICK HERE FOR GUIDELINES EMAIL A COPY TO THE WHOLE SEMINAR. FOR GUIDELINES, SEE THE COURSE WEBSITE OR THE APPENDIX TO THIS SYLLABUS.

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Thurs 11/7
Conference Projects

Reading: classmates' prospectuses and bibliographies

In class, we'll discuss these questions with respect to each project: What are its most promising and most challenging aspects? What is its greatest significance for historians of the sixties? We'll have time to discuss each project for 8 or 9 minutes. Be ready to lead the discussion of your own project, starting with your responses to the questions about its promise, its challenges, and its significance.

CLASS ENDS AT 1:30.

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Mon 11/11
Interrogating Revolutionary Nationalism

Reading: Saikia, Women, War and the Making of Bangladesh

This study of Bangladesh's war of liberation in 1971 suggests that the revolutionary nationalism celebrated by the Third World Movement was a deeply flawed vehicle for emancipation, especially for women. What are your thoughts on that issue given what you've read in Saikia's book and gleaned from our other texts and/or the films we've seen?

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Thurs 11/14
The Cultural Revolution I: Second Thoughts

Reading: explore the Morning Sun website at http://www.morningsun.org

One of the chief slogans of the Cultural Revolution was "Smash the Old," meaning do away with ideas, culture, customs, and habits associated with counterrevolutionaries--or revolutionaries who seemed soft on counterrevolution. To judge from the Morning Sun website, what motivated this campaign against old ways and what did it accomplish?

Film: Morning Sun (2003)

CLASS ENDS AT 1:30.

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Mon 11/18
The Cultural Revolution II: Contested Memory

Reading: Han, The Unknown Cultural Revolution

This book challenges Morning Sun's assessments of the Cultural Revolution. How do you account for the sharp difference in perspectives? Does the disagreement matter beyond China's borders? If so, how? If not, why not?

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Thurs 11/21
Backlash

Film: Machuca (2004)
This movie by Chilean filmmaker Andrés Wood explores class conflicts that set the stage for the violent overthrown of socialist Salvador Allende's presidency on September 11, 1973. What does the movie reveal about upper-class Chileans' reasons for supporting the coup?

CLASS ENDS AT 1:30.

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Mon 11/25
Intervention

Film: Santiago Files (2011)

This documentary, by American filmmaker Cetywa Powell, examines the U.S. government's role in the Chilean coup. How can we square this version of the story with the one Machuca tells?

CLASS ENDS AT 1:30.

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Thurs 11/28
Thanksgiving Break - NO CLASS MEETING

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Mon 12/2
The Perils of United Fronts

Reading: Ebadi, Iran Awakening

As Shirin Ebadi makes clear, a great many Iranians who took part in the revolution of 1979 never imagined that it would give birth to a regime based on religious fundamentalism. What explains this miscalculation?

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Thurs 12/5
Suppression

Reading: Prashad, The Darker Nations, part 3 and conclusion (pp. 207-281)

In the book's final chapters, Vijay Prashad looks at ways in external forces undermined the Third World Movement. On the whole, would you say that the movement's external enemies more or less damage than its internal flaws?

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Mon 12/9
The Dangers of Debt

Film: Life and Debt (2001)

This documentary by American filmmaker Stephanie Black explores ways that the International Monetary Fund and World Bank destabilized the Third World Movement. What were the chief tools they used to accomplish this?

CLASS ENDS AT 1:00.

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Thurs 12/12
Behind the Curtain

Reading:
- Perkins, New Confessions of an Economic Hit Man
- *excerpts from The Black Consciousness Reader: ix-xi, 294-309 (PDF)
- review the epilogue to Soni, When Lions Roared

In the book's final chapters--"What You Can Do" and "Things To Do"--John Perkins addresses Americans, suggesting that they can most decisively tackle the issues his confessions expose. Do you believe he's correct to think that leadership in this global struggle will come from inside the United States? Alternatively, what potential do you see in movements such as the Economic Freedom Fighters in South Africa and the #Fees Must Fall efforts that Manju Soni describes in her book's epilogue?

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Mon 12/16
October 5, 1988

Film: No (2012)

This fact-based feature film depicts the referendum that finally ended the rule of General Augusto Pinochet, leader of the Chilean coup? Why do you suppose Pinochet's regime agreed to a referendum, and why did it lose?

CLASS ENDS AT 1:30

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Thurs 12/19
Informal Meeting and Celebration

No reading assignment.

HAND IN A DETAILED OUTLINE OF THE CONFERENCE PAPER (one paper copy and a digital copy via email). THE DIGITAL COPY MUST BE IN MS WORD. DO NOT SUBMIT A PDF OR ANY OTHER READ-ONLY DOCUMENT. DO NOT SEND A LINK TO GOOGLE DOCS, DROPBOX, OR ANY OTHER CLOUD SERVICE.

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Winter Break
During the first half of the break, every student will receive a response to the detailed outline. Please take the response into account when you compose the first draft. Also, remember the brief but significant seminar reading assigned for the break; on that, see below.

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Thurs 1/23/2020 - first seminar meeting after the winter break
Autobiography as History

Reading: Naïmi, Freedom in Solidarity
This memoir recounts the author's experience as an Algerian guest student who took part in the French uprising of spring 1968. What questions and insights do you derive from this book as we turn to the study of liberation movements inside the United States, another imperial power?

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